Rhenus, -i m.: the river Rhenus, the Rhine. Caesar and his contemporaries makes impossible claims about the number of Gauls killed (over a million), while claiming almost zero Roman casualties. ... Christopher Francese, Caesar: Selections from the Gallic War. The name Provincia has come down to us in the modern Provence. Hī omnēs linguā, īnstitūtīs, lēgibus inter sē differunt. Gallic Wars Book 6 (53 B.C.E.) Gallōs ab Aquītānīs Garumna flūmen, ā Belgīs Mātrona et Sēquana dīvidit. The Gallic Wars By Julius Caesar Translated by W. A. McDevitte and W. S. Bohn. All Gaul is divided into three parts, one of which the Belgae inhabit, the Aquitani another, those who in their own language are called Celts, in our Gauls, the third. Helvētius, -a, -um: Helvetian;as subst., m., a Helvetian; pl., the Helvetii, a rich and powerful tribe, whose country was nearly the same as modern Switzerland. Gallic Wars Book 6 (53 B.C.E.) Harper's New Classical Library. 7:1 Gaul being tranquil, Caesar, as he had determined, sets out for Italy to hold the provincial assizes. The Latin is read by Chris Francese. (Allen & Judson), spectat inter etc. Civil Wars Book 2 (49 B.C.E.) in-cŏlo, -ĕre, -lŭi: to inhabit, dwell in + acc. Hinds & Noble, 1898 - Gaul - 393 pages. toward the northeast (Walker). The Gallic Wars are described by Julius Caesar in his book Commentarii de Bello Gallico, which is the main source for the conflict but is considered to be unreliable at best by modern historians. A map animation for Julius Caesar, Gallic War 1.1, made by Alice Ettling using Google Earth. Caesar, inasmuch as he kept in remembrance that Lucius Cassius, the consul, had been slain, and his army routed and made to pass under the yoke by the Helvetii, did not think that [their request] ought to be granted: nor was he of opinion that men of hostile disposition, eorum una pars: Eorum refers back to the Gauls as a whole, not to the Helvetii, who have just been mentioned. The Gallic Wars 216. by Julius Caesar. This a parallel presentation of the works of Julius Caesar in Latin and English translation. humanitate: ‘refinement’ (Kelsey, provinciae: the province of Gallia Narbonensis, organized about B. C. 120. On this page you will find the text for the passages from Caesar's Gallic Wars that are required reading in Latin for the AP Latin exam in 2012. Paperback $ 10.95. Caesar's Gallic War, Book 1: Being the Latin Text in the Original Order, with a Literal Interlinear Translation, and with an Elegant Translation in the Margin ... Julius Caesar. ‘Gaul, taken as a whole, is divided’. The Gallic Wars were a series of conflicts caused by Julius Caesar's conquest of Gaul that occurred on Earth-1 prior to 49 BC. 1:1 All Gaul is divided into three parts, one of which the Belgae inhabit, the Aquitani another, those who in their own language are called Celts, in our Gauls, the third. The Gallic Wars Julius Caesar TRANSLATED BY W. A. MCDEVITE AND W. S. BOHN BOOK 1 Chapter 1 All Gaul is divided into three parts, one of which the Belgae inhabit, the Aquitani another, those who in their own language are called Celts, in our Gauls, the third. Learn gallic wars book 1 julius with free interactive flashcards. All these differ from each other in language, customs and laws. Bohn. All these differ from each other in language, customs and laws. $10.95. (Part of Caesar's "Gallic war"). Harper & Brothers. De Bello Gallico Book I Chapters 1-7. contineō, -tinēre: contain, hold together; (passive) be bordered by + abl. To provide readers of Greek and Latin with high interest texts equipped with media, vocabulary, and grammatical, historical, and stylistic notes. The Gallic Wars, the series of campaigns waged by Julius Caesar on behalf of the Roman Senate between 58-50 BC, were among the defining conflicts of the Roman era. Gallic Wars Book 7 (52 B.C.E.) h�bbd``b`9$[A��`� $����i@B���ob`b� �I#����` � Translator. With his cavalry and their supplies, he begins the march. 2. Gallic Wars, (58–50 bce), campaigns in which the Roman proconsul Julius Caesar conquered Gaul. The Gallic Wars Julius Caesar TRANSLATED BY W. A. MCDEVITE AND W. S. BOHN BOOK 1 Chapter 1 All Gaul is divided into three parts, one of which the Belgae inhabit, the Aquitani another, those who in their own language are called Celts, in our Gauls, the third. These are the Belgae, the Aquitani, and the Celtae (Gauls). Lucius Domitius and Appius Claudius being consuls [54 B.C. Commentarii de Bello Gallico (English: Commentaries on the Gallic War), also simply Bellum Gallicum (English: Gallic War), is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative. Unfortunately many people think it is a scholarly work, which it is not, it is a war diary, carefully edited for political consumption. Gallic Wars Book 5 (54 B.C.E.) $26.99. commentariorum libri vii de bello gallico cum a. hirti supplemento Gallic Wars Book 1 (58 B.C.E.) as well as the Belgians (Towle & Jenks); ‘also,’ always follows the emphatic word, ‘because they (just as the Belgians) dwell near the Germans.’ (Harper & Tolman) ( AG 322), in eorum finibus: eorum refers to the Germans (Walker). All these differ from each other in language, customs and laws. Latin and English on opposite pages. Gallia est omnis dīvīsa in partēs trēs, quārum ūnam incolunt Belgae, aliam Aquītānī, tertiam quī ipsōrum linguā Celtae, nostrā Gallī appellantur. Translator. The Gallic Wars Caesar portrayed his invasion of Gaul as being a defensive pre-emptive action, most historians agree that the wars were fought primarily to boost Caesar's political career and to … 2205 0 obj <>stream (Kelsey) historical map satellite image, Gallia...divisa: Notice the order of the words. (Merryweather & Tancock). xxii, 619 p., [8] folded leaves of plates, maps ; 17 cm. Gallic Wars Book 4 (55 B.C.E.) Gaius Julius Caesar Commentaries on the Gallic War translated by W.A. Septentriones -um m.: 'the north,' lit. Galba resolved to winter at Octodurus.—II. contĭnenter: (adv. ISBN: 978-1 … Hardcover. This is from the podcast series The History Of Rome by Mike Duncan.He currently does The Revolutions podcasthttp://www.revolutionspodcast.com/ Eōrum ūna pars, quam Gallōs obtinēre dictum est, initium capit ā flūmine Rhodanō; continētur Garumnā flūmine, Ōceanō, fīnibus Belgārum; attingit etiam ab Sēquanīs et Helvētiīs flūmen Rhēnum; vergit ad septentriōnēs. Gallic Wars Book 3 (56 B.C.E.) Hōrum omnium fortissimī sunt Belgae, proptereā quod ā cultū atque hūmānitāte prōvinciae longissimē absunt, minimēque ad eōs mercātōrēs saepe commeant atque ea quae ad effēminandōs animōs pertinent important, proximīque sunt Germānīs, quī trāns Rhēnum incolunt, quibuscum continenter bellum gerunt. I.--. View All Available Formats & Editions. h��oHQ�g�[׽�;o�W���h���E�Z�� ���'nv� ���_|���GH\���X�}\K�>E�m�L�������4��2(����a�73 @,4� �O ��-�`]��ú����*����ҹ$?�ǽ���ő�mNl#���n�HW�)~Q ���@��=�Mg�6C�Y�L=�O�V̀f�R��j�'"��T~�1��sk�`5�:=[q��8L��_0�̭ڧ�Y�1Σ�23W���h�G;7�q�gqQ�#���Fv��Y\*�qZ����+����#\#�Xc�.>�Qh��,G��&�*cD�J.K�I��N��A��V����G!D��,\eUJ~HV�$���@;T�]2s�� N�Y~��@�O�J/�mBʻx�^�\���|�B�K��������F��C�]�d���3� �f^. 2193 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<4909D65C8020C84FBBB598901BEB20AD>]/Index[2185 21]/Info 2184 0 R/Length 60/Prev 1001741/Root 2186 0 R/Size 2206/Type/XRef/W[1 2 1]>>stream Labienus, as he had been ordered by Caesar not to come to an engagement unless [Caesar's] own forces were seen near the enemy's camp, that the attack upon the enemy might be made on every side at the same time, was, after having taken Construe saepe with commeant, minime with both commeant and important; ‘least of all do traders (often resort) make frequent journeys back and forth to them and bring in', etc. the constellations of the great and little Bear. 0 The Gal-lic War offers fixed dates only at the very beginning of books 1 and 8. The exam expects you to read not just these passages, but also the rest of Books I, VI, and VII of Caesar's Commentaries in English. W. S. Bohn. Quite different is the evidence found in the seven books of the Gallic War written by Caesar himself, and the ei ghth book composed by Hirtius. Links to resources for finding sight reading passages of moderate difficulty, most with glosses. (Allen & Greenough) historical map satellite image, mercatores: nom. book 1 book 2 book 3 book 4 book 5 book 6 book 7 book 8. chapter: ... C. Julius Caesar. All these differ from each other in language, customs and laws. Posted By joseph s crary at Mon 1 Oct 2007, 5:14 AM in The Gallic Wars || 2 Replies. (Rice Holmes), Belgae: Belgae -arum m., the Belgae or Belgians; Aquitani, -orum m.: the Aquitani, inhabiting southwestern Gaul;Celtae, -arum m: the Celtae or Celts (Walker), Gallos...dividit: the verb is singular, because the two rivers make one boundary; as we should say, ‘is divided by the line of the Seine and Marne.’ (Allen & Judson; ( AG 317b), Garumna:  Garumna, -ae m., the river Garumna now the Garonne. Table of Contents. Translated by W. A. McDevitte and W. S. Bohn. By Julius Caesar. NOOK Book. The river Garonne separates the Gauls from the Aquitani; the Marne and the Seine separate them from the Belgae. Quā dē causā Helvētiī quoque reliquōs Gallōs virtūte praecēdunt, quod ferē cotīdiānīs proeliīs cum Germānīs contendunt, cum aut suīs fīnibus eōs prohibent aut ipsī in eōrum fīnibus bellum gerunt. ); humanitas, the moral characteristics (refinement of thought and feeling, education, etc.) Chapter 1.1 Gallia est omnis dīvīsa in partēs trēs, quārum ūnam incolunt Belgae, aliam Aquītānī, tertiam quī ipsōrum linguā Celtae, nostrā Gallī appellantur. Civil Wars Book 3 (48-47 B.C.E.) The Gallic Wars has been divided into the following sections: Book 1 [106k] Book 2 [60k] Book 3 [53k] Book 4 [64k] Book 5 [98k] Book 6 [77k] Book 7 [153k] Book 8 [87k] Download: … The Gallic Wars. Gallōs ab Aquītānīs Garumna flūmen, ā Belgīs Mātrona et Sēquana dīvidit. In it Caesar describes the battles and intrigues that took place in the nine years he spent fighting local armies in Gaul that opposed Roman domination. Works of Julius Caesar: Gallic Wars Book 1 (58 B.C.E.) The companion College Vergil commentary (AP selections) is available on this website here. McDevitte and W.S. A brief description of the great divisions of Gaul, and of their inhabitants. Book Summary Caesar's Gallic Wars essays chronicle the history of his military engagements during the years 58-51 B.C. The whole may be freely translated 'which, as has been said, the Gauls occupy'. Commentary references to this page (1): J. Gallic Wars Book 2 (57 B.C.E.) Kelsey, http://dcc.dickinson.edu/caesar/book-1/chapter-1-1. Episode three of the Gallic wars series covers Ariovistus and the Preliminary Moves made by Ariovistus and Caesar. Of these, the bravest are the Belgae, but even their warriors are no match for the courageous Helvetii, a tribe of the … Matrona, -ae m.: the river Matrona, now the Marne. Other Format. The word is used both in the singular (as a compound) and in the plural. Caesar's Gallic Wars essays chronicle the history of his military engagements during the years 58-51 B.C. Caesar regards the whole country from the standpoint of 'The Province'. Dickinson College CommentariesDepartment of Classical StudiesDickinson CollegeCarlisle, PA  17013 USAdickinsoncommentaries@gmail.com(717) 245-1493, ‘Gaul as a whole,’ contrasted with Gaul in the narrower sense, or Celtic Gaul; Celtic Gaul also is often called Gallia. Julius Caesar wrote commentaries on the wars he fought in Gaul between 58 and 52 B.C., in seven books one for each year. Caesar’s Commentaries on the Gallic War. Gallic Wars Book 8 (51-50 B.C.E.) Book I. Strictly speaking, there exists no Gallic nation. commentariorum libri vii de bello gallico cum a. hirti supplemento Caesar's Gallic War, Book 1: Being the Latin Text in the Original Order, with a Literal Interlinear Translation, and with an Elegant Translation in the Margin ... Julius Caesar. Caesar therefore confers with the Gallic chiefs and decides to make immediate war on the Germans. Choose from 500 different sets of gallic wars book 1 julius flashcards on Quizlet. Carlisle, Pennsylvania: Dickinson College Commentaries, 2011, revised and enlarged 2018. Sequana, -ae m.: the river Sequana, now the Seine (Walker), cultu atque humanitate: cultus indicates the outward characteristics of civilization (dress, habits of life, etc. Kate Gilliver makes use of this account and other surviving evidence to consider the importance of the Gallic Wars in the context of the collapse of the Roman Republic and its slide toward civil war. New York. %%EOF the Gallic arms and ensigns. Book 6 Chapter 1.3 Hīs rēbus adductī et auctōritāte Orgetorīgis permōtī, cōnstituērunt ea quae ad proficīscendum pertinērent comparāre, iūmentōrum et carrōrum quam māximum numerum coëmere, sēmentēs quam māximās facere ut in itinere cōpia frūmentī suppeteret, cum proximīs cīvitātibus pācem et amīcitiam cōnfīrmāre. W. A. McDevitte. The country referred to as Gaul exists only in terms of a geographic label, for within its boundaries live three separate and warring peoples who differ in languages, customs, and laws. %PDF-1.6 %���� Clad in the bloodred cloak he usually wore “as his distinguishing mark of battle,” Caesar led his troops to victories throughout the province, his major triumph being the defeat of the Gallic army led by The Gallic Wars By Julius Caesar ... Book 4 : Chapter 1 The following winter (this was the year in which Cn. ], Caesar, when departing from his winter quarters into Italy, as he had been accustomed to do yearly, commands the lieutenants whom he appointed over the legions to take care that during the winter as many ships as possible should be built, and the old repaired. The Gallic Wars Summary Caesar portrayed his invasion of Gaul as being a defensive pre-emptive action, most historians agree that the wars were fought primarily to boost Caesar's political career and to pay off his massive debts. These recordings are derived from the Ørberg LLPSI edition, which contains introductory citations for the sake of context, and the partially abridged books 1, 4, and 5. Choose from 500 different sets of gallic wars book 1 julius flashcards on Quizlet. Author Caesar, Julius. 'has a northwesterly aspect'. ... Caesar's Wars with the Germans. The Gal-lic War offers fixed dates only at the very beginning of books 1 and 8. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1869. Traders and peddlers from Massilia (Marseilles) and northern Italy brought wine (their most attractive commodity) and other luxuries on pack mules or even on their own backs (Towle & Jenks), commeant: ‘make their way to’ (Kelsey); words of motion compounded with cum often contain an idea of ‘hither and thither’ (Walpole). The Gallic Wars were a series of military campaigns waged by the Roman proconsul Julius Caesar against several Gallic tribes.Rome's war against the Gallic tribes lasted from 58 BC to 50 BC and culminated in the decisive Battle of Alesia in 52 BC, in which a complete Roman victory resulted in the expansion of the Roman Republic over the whole of Gaul (mainly present-day France and Belgium). Hī omnēs linguā, īnstitūtīs, lēgibus inter sē differunt. 1. The core foundation of Latin literature and plainest prose style is dē factō the work of Julius Caesar, and few books are more famous in world history than his Gallic Wars. 5 Scholars have, therefore, been reduced to … 1 Review . Quite different is the evidence found in the seven books of the Gallic War written by Caesar himself, and the ei ghth book composed by Hirtius. Campaign Map for Book 1.1-29 by Arthur Tappan Walker. Clad in the bloodred cloak he usually wore “as his distinguishing mark of battle,” Caesar led his troops to victories throughout the province, his major triumph being the defeat of the Gallic army led by the chieftain Vercingetorix, in 52 bce. Belgae ab extrēmīs Galliae fīnibus oriuntur; pertinent ad īnferiōrem partem flūminis Rhēnī; spectant in septentriōnem et orientem sōlem. And, as an aid to his readers, he provides expository information for those who are unfamiliar with the far-off lands and people encountered during his forays. Pompey and M. Crassus were consuls), those Germans [called] the Usipetes, and likewise the Tenchtheri, with a great number of men, crossed the Rhine, not far from the place at which that river discharges itself into the sea. Map: Campaign of 58 BC by Greenough, D'ooge, and Daniell. prae-cēdo -ĕre -cessī-cessum: surpass, excel, contendo -tendere -tendi, -tentum: fight with, contend against, vie with, ob-tĭnĕo -tinēre -tĭnŭi -tentum: hold, possess, keep possession of, Rhodanus, -i m.: the river Rhodanus, the Rhone. Everyday low prices and free delivery on eligible orders. 2185 0 obj <> endobj There he receives intelligence of the death of Clodius; and, being informed of the decree of the senate, [to the effect] that all the youth of Italy should take the military oath, he determined to hold a levy throughout the entire province. Book 1: Chapters 1-7 Book 5: Chapters 24-48. Book III. From Ancient to Medieval Latin, then on to Modern English I’ve a slightly different take on chapter 1, Book 4…. I. Caesar, a the close of the late campaign, sent Servius Galba into the territories of the Nantuates, Veragri, and Seduni, with permission to winter there, if expedient; his reason for this. 6:1 Caesar, expecting for many reasons a greater commotion in Gaul, resolves to hold a levy by the means of M. Silanus C. Antistius Reginus, and T. Sextius, his lieutenants: at the same time he requested Cn. Book 6 Chapter 1.3 Hīs rēbus adductī et auctōritāte Orgetorīgis permōtī, cōnstituērunt ea quae ad proficīscendum pertinērent comparāre, iūmentōrum et carrōrum quam māximum numerum coëmere, sēmentēs quam māximās facere ut in itinere cōpia frūmentī suppeteret, cum proximīs cīvitātibus pācem et amīcitiam cōnfīrmāre. Caesar's commentaries on his Gallic Wars provide us with the most detailed surviving eye-witness account of a campaign from antiquity. The Seduni and Veragri combine against him.—III. (Towle & Jenks), ad effeminandos animos: ‘to weaken the courage’ (Walker)( AG 506), qua de causa: ‘For this reason’ (Kelsey); ‘and for this reason’: referring back to proximi, etc., and further explained by quod…contendunt ( AG 404c), quoque: i.e. Caesar's Gallic War consists of seven parts ("books"), each devoted to one year of campaigning.The first book covers the year 58 BCE: it opens with the war against the Helvetians, continues with a victorious battle against a Germanic army, and culminates in the modest remark that Caesar had concluded two very important wars in a single … Its chief cities were Massilia (Marseilles), an old Greek free city, and the capital, Narbo (Narbonne), a Roman colony. B. Greenough, Benjamin L. D'Ooge, M. Grant Daniell, Commentary on Caesar's Gallic War, AG BG 3.23; Cross-references to this page (11): Allen and Greenough's New Latin Grammar for Schools and Colleges, SYNTAX OF THE VERB Aquītānia ā Garumnā flūmine ad Pȳrēnaeōs mōntēs et eam partem Ōceanī quae est ad Hispāniam pertinet; spectat inter occāsum sōlis et septentriōnēs. 1 Review . A different take on Caesar's Gallic War, chapter 1, book 4. Boynton. Gallic Wars, (58–50 bce), campaigns in which the Roman proconsul Julius Caesar conquered Gaul. (Walker), ab Sequanis: ‘on the side of the Sequani.’ (Merryweather & Tancock) ( AG 429.b), in septentriones…solem: i.e. Hinds & Noble, 1898 - Gaul - 393 pages. (Kelsey), , inhabiting southwestern Gaul;Celtae, -arum m: the Celtae or, Garumna, -ae m., the river Garumna now the, General Map of the Peoples of Gaul in the Time of Caesar by Eugene Stoffel, Map of Gaul in Caesar's Time by H. Meusel, Map: Physical Features of Gaul by T.A. Book 1. endstream endobj startxref in Gaul, Germany, and Britain. ), continuously, without interruption. Chapter 1. Buy The Gallic Wars by Caesar, Julius, Holmes, Thomas (ISBN: 9781536876154) from Amazon's Book Store. 1869. Below are useful files that complement the College Caesar textbook. Description. When he nears the enemy, however, he receives a message stating that the Germans have made no advances against the Romans and that they will not refuse to fight if they are attacked. (Walpole), Gallia, -ae, f.: Gaul, roughly equivalent to modern France. All Gaul is divided into three parts, one of which the Belgae inhabit, the Aquitani another, those who in their own language are called Celts, in ours Gauls, the third. Dodge, Map: Gaul in the Time of Caesar by G.W. Paperback. Learn gallic wars book 1 julius with free interactive flashcards. A map of all locations mentioned in the text and notes of the Aetia. c. iulius caesar (100 – 44 b.c.) Alexandrian War Civil Wars Book 1 (50 B.C.E.) There is also an 8th book, written by Aulus Hirtius. Commentary references to this page (1): J. The campaign promises to be a very difficult one, but Caesar has several good reasons for pursuing it: it is outrageous that Roman officials have been taken prisoner and these nations have renewed the war after having made peace terms, and, worst of all, if the rebels aren't put down, then other Gallic tribes might also be stimulated to rebel. In the first 10 minutes I provide 5 Campaign/Battle Maps which are directly related to the events in Book 1 (58 B.C.). Book 4: Chapters 24-35 Book 6: Chapters 13-20. Chapter 1 Caesar, expecting for many reasons a greater commotion in Gaul, resolves to hold a levy by the means of M. Silanus C. Antistius Reginus, and T. Sextius, his lieutenants: at the same time he requested Cn. Aquitānī -ōrum m.: the Aquitani, inhabiting southwestern Gaul, īnstitutum -i n.: fixed course or principle; habit, institution, custom, proptĕrĕā: for that cause, on that account; proptĕrĕā quod, 'for the reason that', 'because', cultus -ūs m.: training, education, culture, hūmānĭtas -ātis f.: liberal education, elegance of manners or language, refinement, com-mĕo -āre: go up and down, come and go, visit frequently, ef-fēmĭno -āre: to make womanish, enervate, weaken, importo -āre: bring in, import; introduce. Pompey, the proconsul, that since he was remaining near the city invested with military command for the interests of the commonwealth, he would command those men whom when consul … This chapter covers the initial Helvetii migration up until the battle on the river Siene. Caesar's Gallic War. : i.e. quam Gallos obtinere: quam is the object, Gallos the subject of obtinere; the infinitive clause quam...obtinere is the subject of dictum est. in Gaul, Germany, and Britain.And, as an aid to his readers, he provides expository information for those who are unfamiliar with the far-off lands and people encountered during his forays. $1.99. B. Greenough, Benjamin L. D'Ooge, M. Grant Daniell, Commentary on Caesar's Gallic War, AG BG 1.2; Cross-references to this page (3): Allen and Greenough's New Latin Grammar for Schools and Colleges, SYNTAX OF THE VERB; Anne Mahoney, Overview of Latin Syntax, Nouns, Adjectives, and Pronouns Published 1916. c. iulius caesar (100 – 44 b.c.) 1st Edition. Caesar leads off his forces to the next hill: [and] draws them up in battle-order. Gallic Wars Book 7 (52 B.C.E.) Sēquanī -ōrum m.: a Celtic nation in the upper valley of the Arar or Saône, vergo -ĕre: to bend, turn, incline; lie, be situated, occāsus -ūs m.: setting (of the heavenly bodies); the west. Introduction The Amsterdam Caesar Codex. This series of annual war commentaries is referred to by various names but is commonly called De bello Gallico in Latin, or The Gallic Wars in English. $59.99. Map: Gaul in the Time of Caesar by Edward Stanford Ltd. Map of Gaul, Germany, and Britain by Peters and Son, Map of Gallia Antiqua by Greenough, D'ooge, and Daniell, Campaign Map for Book 1.1-29 by Arthur Tappan Walker, Map: Campaign of 58 BC by Greenough, D'ooge, and Daniell, Campaign Map of 58 and 57 BC by F.W. Gallia...omnis: ‘Gaul as a whole,’ contrasted with Gaul in the narrower sense, or Celtic Gaul; Celtic Gaul also is often called Gallia. 5 Scholars have, therefore, been reduced to relying on occasional temporal clues (for ex- The Gallic War by Caesar was written just over two thousand years ago by one of the greatest military minds the world has ever known.

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